Ubuntu 18.04 阿里云镜像下载及更换国内源

系统镜像下载地址:https://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu-releases/18.04.4/ubuntu-18.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso

Ubuntu本身的源使用的是国内的源,下载速度比较慢,不像CentOS一样yum安装的时候对镜像站点进项选择,
所以选择了更换成国内的源。
以下内容整合自网络

备份/etc/apt/sources.list文件

sudo mv /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.backup

新建/etc/apt/sources.list文件并添加以下内容

#阿里云源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

更改完成之后执行以下命令

sudo apt update

其他的一些apt命令

sudo apt-get update  #更新源
sudo apt-get install package #安装包
sudo apt-get remove package #删除包
sudo apt-cache search package #搜索软件包
sudo apt-cache show package  #获取包的相关信息,如说明、大小、版本等
sudo apt-get install package --reinstall  #重新安装包
sudo apt-get -f install  #修复安装
sudo apt-get remove package --purge #删除包,包括配置文件等
sudo apt-get build-dep package #安装相关的编译环境
sudo apt-get upgrade #更新已安装的包
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade #升级系统
sudo apt-cache depends package #了解使用该包依赖那些包
sudo apt-cache rdepends package #查看该包被哪些包依赖
sudo apt-get source package  #下载该包的源代码
sudo apt-get clean && sudo apt-get autoclean #清理无用的包
sudo apt-get check #检查是否有损坏的依赖

其他几个国内的源:

#中科大源
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

#网易163源
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

#清华源
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse